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2015年考研英语(一)真题(含解析)06


凯程考研,为学员服务,为学生引路!

2015 年考研英语(一)真题(含解析)
2015 研究生入学统一考试试题(英语一) Section 1 Use of English Directions:Readthe following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank andmark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) Though not biologically related, friends are as "related" as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is 1 a study published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has 2 . The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted 3 1932 unique subjects which 4 pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both 5 . While 1% may seem 6 , it is not so to a geneticist. As co-author of the study James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego says, "Most people do not even 7 their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who 8 our kin." The team also developed a "friendship score" which can predict who will be your friend based on their genes. The study 9 found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity. Why this similarity in olfactory genes is difficult to explain, for now. 10 , as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more 11 it. There could be many mechanisms working in tandem that 12 us in choosing genetically similar friends 13 than "functional kinship" of being friends with 14 ! One of the remarkable findings of the study was that the similar genes seem to be evolving 15 than other genes. Studying this could help 16 why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major 17 factor. The findings do not simply corroborate people's 18 to befriend those of similar 19 backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to 20 that all subjects, friends and strangers were taken from the same population. The team also controlled the data to check ancestry of subjects. 1 A what B why C how D when 2 A defended B concluded C withdrawn D advised 3 A for B with C by D on 4 A separated B sought C compared D connected 5 A tests B objects C samples D examples 6 A insignificant B unexpected C unreliable D incredible 7 A visit B miss C know D seek 8 A surpass B influence C favor D resemble 9 A again B also C instead D thus 10 A Meanwhile B Furthermore C Likewise D Perhaps
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凯程考研,为学员服务,为学生引路! 11 A about B to C from D like 12 A limit B observe C confuse D drive 13 A according to B rather than C regardless of D along with 14 A chances B responses C benefits D missions 15 A faster B slower C later D earlier 16 A forecast B remember C express D understand 17 A unpredicted B contributory C controllable D disruptive 18 A tendency B decision C arrangement D endeavor 19 A political B religious C ethnic D economic 20 A see B show C prove D tell 答案解析 1、A what 本句的句意是:这就是加利福尼亚大学和耶鲁大学在美国国家科学院报 告上联合发表的研究成果。第一个空考察表语从句的引导词。 2、B concluded 本句的句意是:这就是加利福尼亚大学和耶鲁大学在美国国家科学 院报告上联合发表的研究成果。第二个空为针对从句谓语进行的词义考察。 3、 D on 本句前半句的句意是: 这项研究是一个基于 1932 个独特个体的基因组广谱 分析。考察 Conduct on 词组,进行。从句意为:它对成对儿的非亲缘朋友和陌生人进行比 较。 4、C compared 比较,根据上下文及后一句的 same 知道,比较为最佳。 5、C samples 词义题,样本,C 为最佳选项。 6、A insignificant 词义题,1%,以及后面的 not so 转折,判断,A insignificant 不显 著,为最佳选项。 7、C know 句意为:一些人虽然并不认识他们第四代的表亲,但他们选择的朋友却 和这些亲戚颇有相似之处。 8、D resemble 词义题,和上一个空形成转折。 9、B also 上下文逻辑题,发现了,还发现了。Also 为最佳选项。 10、D Perhaps 结合上下文:这一现象很难解释,后面接原因,原因"可能"是……最 符合文章大意。 11、B to 介词题,意为:就像这个科研团队所发现的,这个因素不仅把我们带到详 细的环境中来,更有一些深层次的影响。 12、D drive 词义题,根据上下文,对我们产生影响,驱使我们……drive 为最佳选 项。 13、B rather than 逻辑题,基因上相似的,功能上相似的,二者对立不能同时存在, rather than 不是…而是最符合。 14、C benefits 跟"功能"搭配,选个褒义词,带来好处的,最佳。 15、A faster 词义题,根据后半句解释,这就是为什么"picked pace"加速,这里只能 选 faster,一些比另外一些进化得更快,符合文意。 16、D understand 词义题,这个研究可以帮助我们理解一个事实。 17、B contributory 本句意为:社会环境是最主要的一个因素。Contributory 贡献, 最佳。 18、A tendency 结合文章主旨,选择基因相似的人做朋友是普遍现象,tendency 趋 势倾向最符合。 19、C ethnic 同义替换,基因背景相似,种族的,民族的,最符合。
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凯程考研,为学员服务,为学生引路! 20、A see 本句意为:尽管所有的研究对象都取自欧洲血统,研究者也花心思确保 了所有(用于比对的)朋友和陌生人也源自该血统中的同一支系。 Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) Text 1 King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted kings don't abdicate, they die in their sleep. But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, dies the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the uniting is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyles? The Spanish case previous arguments both for and against monarchy when public opinion is particularly. Polarized, as it was following the end of the France regime, monarchs can rise above "mere" politics and "embody" a spirit of national unity. It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs continuing popularity as heads of states. And so, the Middle East expected, Europe is the most monarch-infested region is the world, with 10 kingdoms not counting Vatican city and Andorra. But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respect public figure. Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside, symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history-and sometimes the way they behave today-embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomes Piketty and other ecumenists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states. The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Prince and princess have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image. While Europe's monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to strive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example. It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-healed) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service-as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings of republicans, who are the monarchy's worst enemies. 21、according to the first two paragraphs, king Juan Carl of span [A] used to enjoy high public support [B] was unpopular among European royals [C] ended his reign in embarrassment [D] eased his relationship with his rivals
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