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2005 Text 1
Everybody loves a fat pay rise. Yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learn that a colleague has been given a bigger one. Indeed, if he has a reputation for slacking, you might even be outraged. Such behaviour is regarded as “all too human”, with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance. But a study by Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, which has just been published in Nature, suggests that it all too monkey, as well. The researchers studied the behaviour of female brown capuchin monkeys. They look cute. They are good-natured, co-operative creatures, and they share their food tardily. Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of “goods and services” than males. Such characteristics make them perfect candidates for Dr. Brosnan's and Dr. de waal's; study. The researchers spent two years teaching their monkeys to exchange tokens for food. Normally, the monkeys were happy enough to exchange pieces of rock for slices of cucumber. However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behaviour became markedly different. In the world of capuchins grapes are luxury goods (and much preferable to cucumbers) So when one monkey was handed a grape in exchange for her token, the second was reluctant to hand hers over for a mere piece of cucumber. And if one received a grape without having to provide her token in exchange at all, the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused to accept the slice of cucumber .Indeed, the mere presence of a grape in the other chamber (without an actual monkey to eat it) was enough to induce resentment in a female capuchin. The researches suggest that capuchin monkeys, like humans, are guided by social emotions, in the wild, they are a co-operative, groupliving species, Such co-operation is likely to be stable only when each animal feels it is not being cheated. Feelings of righteous indignation, it seems, are not the preserve of people alone, Refusing a lesser reward completely makes these feelings abundantly clear to other members of the group. However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question.

全文翻译: 人人都喜欢大幅加薪,但是当你知道一个同事薪水加得比你还要多的时候,那么加薪带给你的喜悦感就消 失的无影无踪了。如果他还以懒散出名的话,你甚至会变得怒不可遏。这种行为被看作是“人之长情”,其潜在 的假定其他动物不可能具有如此高度发达的不公平意识。但是由佐治亚州亚特兰大埃里莫大学的 Sarah Brosnan 和 Frans de Waal 进行的一项研究表明,它也是“猴之常情”。这项研究成果刚刚发表在《自然》 杂志上。 研究者们对雌性棕色卷尾猴的行为进行了研究。它们看起来很可爱,性格温顺,合作,乐于分享食物。最 重要的是, 就象女人们一样, 它们往往比雄性更关注“商品和服务”价值。 这些特性使它们成为 Brosnan 和 de Waal 理想的研究对象。研究者们花了两年的时间教这些猴子用代币换取食物。正常情况下,猴子很愿意用几 块石头换几片黄瓜。但是,当两个猴子被安置在隔开但相邻的两个房间里,能够互相看见对方用石头换回来什 么东西时,猴子的行为就会变的明显不同。 在卷尾猴的世界里,葡萄是奢侈品(比黄瓜受欢迎得多)。所以当一只猴子用一个代币换回一颗葡萄时, 第二只猴子就不愿意用自己的代币换回一片黄瓜。如果一只猴子根本无需用代币就能够得到一颗葡萄的话,那 么另外一只就会将代币掷向研究人员或者扔出房间外,或者拒绝接受那片黄瓜。事实上,只要在另一房间里出 现了葡萄(不管有没有猴子吃它),都足以引起雌卷尾猴的怨恨。 研究人员指出,正如人类一样,卷尾猴也受社会情感的影响。在野外,它们是相互合作的群居动物。只有 当每只猴子感到自己没有受到欺骗时,这种合作才可能稳定。不公平而引起的愤怒感似乎不是人类的专利。拒 绝接受较少的酬劳可以让这些情绪准确无误地传达给其它成员。但是这种公平感是在卷尾猴和人类身上各自独 立演化而成,还是来自三千五百万前他们共同的祖先,这还是一个悬而未决的问题。

2005 Text 2
Do you remember all those years when scientists argued that smoking would kill us but the doubters insisted that we didn't know for sure? That the evidence was inconclusive, the science uncertain? That the antismoking lobby was out to destroy our way of life and the government should stay out of the way? Lots of Americans bought that nonsense, and over three decades, some 10 million smokers went to early graves. 1

There are upsetting parallels today, as scientists in one wave after another try to awaken us to the growing threat of global warming. The latest was a panel from the National Academy of Sciences, enlisted by the White House, to tell us that the Earth's atmosphere is definitely warming and that the problem is largely man-made. The clear message is that we should get moving to protect ourselves. The president of the National Academy, Bruce Alberts, added this key point in the preface to the panel's report“ Science never has all the answers .But science does provide us with the best available guide to the future, and it is critical that our nation and the world base important policies on the best judgments that science can provide concerning the future consequences of present actions.” Just as on smoking, voices now come from many quarters insisting that the science about global warming is incomplete, that it's Ok to keep pouring fumes into the air until we know for sure. This is a dangerous game: by the 100 percent of the evidence is in, it may be too late. With the risks obvious and growing, a prudent people would take out an insurance policy now. Fortunately, the White House is starting to pay attention. But it's obvious that a majority of the president's advisers still don't take global warming seriously. Instead of a plan of action, they continue to press for more research-a classic case of “paralysis by analysis”. To serve as responsible stewards of the planet, we must press forward on deeper atmospheric and oceanic research But research alone is inadequate. If the Administration won't take the legislative initiative, Congress should help to begin fashioning conservation measures .A bill by Democratic Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia, which would offer financial incentives for private industry is a promising start Many see that the country is getting ready to build lots of new power plants to meet our energy needs. If we are ever going to protect the atmosphere, it is crucial that those new plants be environmentally sound.







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