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Part 2 ( Paras. 3-9): ① The German bombers cast dark shadows over the white cliffs of Dover,…(Para. 3) cast: vt 投射(目光)将(思想、感情)加于 e.g. Some doubt has been cast on the future of the business.有人表示对公司前景的疑虑。 Her arrival cast a shadow over the party.她的到来给晚会投下了不愉快的阴影。 vt. throw with force 投,掷,抛 e.g. He cast the line to the middle of the river.他将钓鱼线抛到了河的中央。 . ② Air Marshal Goering‘s bomber pilots were sure of their ultimate triumph over England.(para. 4) Meaning: German pilots under Air Marshal Goering were sure that they would defeat England finally. be sure of sth. Certain to receive, win, etc. sth.确信会获得,赢得 e.g. Can I be sure of a profit if I put my money there.我把钱投在那儿一定能获利吗? ③ …England would surrender.(Para. 4) surrender: v. 1) give up or give in to the power (esp. of an enemy), as a sign of defeat 投降, 自首; 屈服 (于)e.g. They would rather die than surrender.他们宁死不降。 He surrendered to despair and finally killed himself.他陷于绝望,终于自杀。 2) give sth. To sb. else because you have been forced to do so or because it is necessary to do so.交出,放弃 e.g. Nether side is willing to surrender any of their claims.双方都不愿放弃自己的要求。 They surrendered their guns to the police.他们把枪支交给了警察。 ④They had the English Channel as a barrier against the Nazi ground forces, and they had the Royal Air Force (RAF) to battle the Nazis in the sky. ( para5) Meaning: The English Channel functioned as a natural barrier and protected the English from being attacked by the Nazi ground forces, and the Royal Air Force could fight against the Nazis in the sky. ⑤ The hardships of London really started in the first week of September, when Hitler was at last convinced that the English did not intend to give in. On September 7, 1940, nearly four hundred German bombers hammered the city with bombs…( para.6) Meaning: In the first week of September, Hitler was finally made to believe that the English didn‘t have any intention to surrender. At that point, the real hardships of London began with almost 400 German bombers attacking the city severely on September 7,1940. ⑥…German bombers hammered the city with bombs in broad daylight.(para 6) in broad daylight: in the full light of day.大白天,光天化日之下 e.g. He was robbed in broad daylight, in a crowded street. 他在光天化日之下被抢劫了,就在一条熙熙攘攘的街道上。 ⑦This is the historic hour. (para6) Historic 与 historical 词义比较:historic 和 historical 都有“历史”的意思,但 historical

只表示过去确实存在过或发生过,e.g. It‘s a historical fact 那时历史事实。historic 则表示被认 为在历史上非常重要的,或有历史意义的,Today is a historic day.今天是个具有重要历史意 义的日子。因此同一历史事件可说是一起 historical event 因为它确实发生过,也可说是一起 historic event 如果该事件具有历史意义的话。 常见搭配:a historic event/speech/place 历史上著名的事件/演说/地方 Historical event/person/novel/play/studies 历史事件/人物/小说/剧/研究 ⑧…and planes spitting fire in the skies above. (para. 8) spit : 1) n. [u ]口水,唾液 e.g. She used a little spit on a cloth to wipe the mirror clean. 她在布上吐上了一点唾沫来擦净镜子 2) v. send (liquid or sth. else) out from the mouth 吐(痰) ;吐(口水等) e.g. He was spitting blood after being hit in the mouth.他嘴部挨打后吐出了鲜血。 In many countries it is considered rude to spit in public. 在许多国家当众吐痰被认为是粗鲁无礼的行为 ⑨…as though the war were a thousand miles away. (para.9) as though 引导的从句往往用虚拟语气,从句谓语动词用过去是,当谓语动词是 be 时, 总用 were. Part 3 ( Paras. 10-13): ① He spoke as though nothing could ever keep him from saying those words.( para.10) keep sb. from doing sth.=stop sb. from doing sth.阻止某人做某事 e.g.The heavy rain kept us from going outing. ②The Pilots in the RAF reached the limits of exhaustion and then went beyond those limits, still fighting.( para12) Meaning: The pilots in the Royal Air Force became very tired. But they endured and went beyond their physical limits to fight against Nazi bombers 这些皇家空军的飞行员已经到了疲劳 的极限,却还在超越极限地继续战斗。 exhaustion. n . [u] total loss of strength 筋疲力尽,疲惫 e.g. She felt ill with exhaustion.她因过度劳累而感到身体不适 exhaust: vt.. 1) make (a person or an animal) very tired 使疲惫不堪 e.g. The long cycle ride exhausted her.长途骑自行车使她疲惫不堪。 2) use (sth.) up completely.用尽,耗尽 e.g. His bad behavior nearly exhausted her patience.他的不良行为几乎使她失去了耐心。 We seem to have exhausted this subject of conversation. 看来我们对这个话题已经没什么可说的了。 ③They had to stand firm and take whatever the enemy threw at them. (para13) Meaning: They had to keep determined and resolute and endure any kind of suffering the enemy caused them.他们必须坚强起来,去承受敌人带给他们的人和灾难。 Part 4 (Paras. 14--15): ①“Mark it down”that…. ( para14) Here ―mark it down‖just means ―remember it‖ mark sth. down= write sth. Down

e.g. The teacher marked him down as present 老师记下他到堂了。 ②“… whichever political system best provides for the defense and decency of the little man will win”?( para14) Meaning: ―… any political system which can develop the best method to ensure the defence and decency of ordinary people will the war.‖能最好地保护平民百姓并保持其尊严的政治 体制将赢得胜利。 whichever: 无论哪一个,无论,不管 e.g. Whichever one you want is yours.你想要哪个就给你那个 5. Writing skill -- using some specific details to support a general statement 1) Purpose Usually a general statement may be too general, and therefore needs to be made concrete and specific. This implies that details are required to be presented to illustrate: to lend support to ideas and explain difficult, abstract or unfamiliar concepts. Through specific details, readers can obtain vivid picture of sth. general, abstract and /or unfamiliar, and therefore make the writing impressive and interesting. 2) Arrangement of examples A paragraph of a general statement supported by specific details begins with the general statement, which is then followed specific details. The specific details may be causes, different phenomena etc. All those details are used to prove the statement. The following paragraph just adopts this writing style. A foreigner‘s first impression of the U.S. is likely to be that ⑴everyone is in a rush ---often under pressure. ⑵ City people always appear to be hurrying to get where they ar e going, restlessly seeking attention in a store, or elbowing others as they try to complete their shopping. Racing through daytime meals is part of the pace of life in this country. ⑶Working time is considered precious. Others in public eating-places are waiting for you to finish so they, too, can be served and get back to work within the time allowed. ⑷Yo u also find drivers will be abrupt and people will push past you. You will miss smiles, b rief conversations, and small exchanges with strangers. Don‘t take it personally. ⑸This is because value time highly, and they resent someone else ―wasting ‖it beyond a certain ap propriate point. 句子⑴是这个段落作者要说明的观点,是段落的中心,段落的主题:美国人给人的第 一印象总是匆匆忙忙的。 那么表现在什么方面呢?句子⑵⑶⑷分别是三个具体的细节, 三种 常见的现象。借助于这三个细节,读者可以得到一个很清晰的印象,美国人每天都忙忙碌碌 的,原来是这个样子啊。依据句子⑸我们就明白了,因为美国人太珍惜时间了,所以平时才 那么紧张。 这种段落展开的方法,要求作者有比较详实的写作的素材。所以平时应注意观察周围 的事物,养成论证自己观点的习惯,多读类似的文章,了解和体会西方人的思维模式。这样 写出的文章才有英文的样子。