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自考英语词汇学笔记完整整理 全部

Lexicology 词汇学) is a branch of linguistics, ( : inquiring into the origins and meanings of words. The Nature and Scope of English lexicology: English lexicology aims at investigating and studying the morphological structures of English words and word equivalents, their semantic structures, relations, historical development, formation and usages. The subjects that English Lexicology correlated with and extent to: English Lexicology is correlated with such linguistic disciplines as morphology(形态学), semantics( 语 义 学 ), 典学) The reason for a student to study English lexicology: According to the textbook, English Lexicology will definitely be beneficial for students of English. A good knowledge of morphological structures of English words and rules of word-formation will help learners develop their personal vocabulary and consciously increase their word power. The information of the historical development classification and will the give principles them a of deeper etymology( 词 源 lexicography(词 学),stylistics (文体论) and

understanding of word-meaning and enable them to organize, classify and store words more effectively. The understanding and their sense relations will gradually raise their awareness of meaning and usage, and enable them use words more accurately and appropriately. A working knowledge of dictionaries will improve their skills of using reference books and raise their problem-solving ability and efficiency of individual study. Chapter 1 1 - The definition of a word comprises the following points: (1) a minimal free form of a language; (2) a sound unity; (3) a unit of meaning; (4) a form that can function alone in a sentence. language A word is a minimal free form of a language that has a given sound and meaning and syntactic function. 1 词定义 包括以下几点: ( 1 )一门语言中最小的自由形 式; ( 2 )一个声音的统一体 ( 3 )一个意义单 位; ( 4 )在一个句子中独立起作用的一个形式。 词是一门语言中具有一定的声音 一门语言中具有 一定的声音、 词是一门语言中具有一定的声音、 意义和句法功能的最小的自由形式 2- Sound and Meaning: symbolic connection is almost always arbitrary and conventional. A dog is called a

dog not because the sound and the three letters that make up the word just automatically suggest the animal in question. 2 -声音和意义:象征性联系几乎 总是任意和约定成俗的 狗称为狗不是因为这个声 音以及这三个字母在一起就能自动表示这种动物。 3- Old English, the speech of the time was represented very much more faithfully in writing than it is today. The internal reason for this is that the English alphabet was adopted from the Romans, which does not have a separate letter to represent each sound in the language so that some letters must do double duty or work together in combination. 3 –古代英语,随着 语言的发展,声音和形式之间的差异越来越大。产 生这种差异的内在原因是英语拼 写采用了拉丁字 母,从而使英语中的每个音位并不能都用单独的字 母来表示,有些字母必须起双重职能或组 合在一 起来表示一个音 4 Another reason is that the pronunciation has changed more rapidly than spelling over the years, and in some cases the two have drawn far apart. 另一 个原因是,发音比拼写变化的快,在某些情况下, 两者产生了很大的差异。 A third reason is that some of the differences were created by the early scribes. 第三个原因是,是由于早期抄写僧所造成的一些差 异 。 Finally comes the borrowing, which is an important channel of enriching the English vocabulary. 最后一个原因是外来词。外来词是丰富了英语词汇 的重要途径。 5 - Vocabulary: All the words in a language make up its vocabulary. Not only can it refer to the total number of the words in a language, but it can stand for all the words used in a particular historical period. We also use it to refer to all the words of a given dialect, a given book, a given discipline and the words possessed by an individual person. The general estimate of the present-day English vocabulary is over million words. 5 -词汇: 一门语言中所有的词构成该 语言的词汇。―词汇‖一词具有多重含义。它不仅可 以指一门语言的词汇量,还可以指某一特制定时期 的词汇。我们还可以用该词指称某一方言 的词汇、 某一本书的词汇、某一学科的词汇,甚至还可指某 个人的词汇量。英语是世界上高度发达的语言之 一,也是词汇量最大、最丰富的语言之一。据初步 统计,当代英语词汇量已达 100 多万词。 By use frequency:basic word stock&nonbasic vocabulary By notion:content words&functional words By origin:native words&borrowed words 6 - Words may fall into the basic word stock and nonbasic vocabulary by use frequency, into content words and functional words by notion, and into native words and borrowed words by origin. 按使用频率 分, 词可以分为基本词汇和非基本词汇;按有无实义 来分,词可以分为实义词和功能词;按起源 分, 它又可分为本族语词和外来语词。 7 - The basic word stock is the foundation of the vocabulary accumulated over centuries and forms the common core of the language. Though words of the basic word stock constitute a small percentage of the English vocabulary, yet it is the most important part of it. These words have obvious characteristics.-一门语 言的基本词汇是长期积累下来的,是该语言的共

核。虽然英语中的基本词汇只占总词汇量的一小部 分,但却是最重要的部分。基本词汇 具有下列明 显的特点。 8 - All national character. Words of the basic word stock denote the most common things and phenomena of the world around us, which are indispensable to all the people language 。 relating who speak the language 。 They include words relating to the following respects: Natural phenomena/Human body and relations/Names of plants and animals/Action, size, domain, state/Numerals, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions 全民性。基本词汇指称我们周围世界 最常见的食物和现象,是讲这门语言的人们所必不 可少的。基本词汇包 括以下几个方面相关的词: 自然现象/人体和人们之间的关系/动、植物名称/行 为、尺寸、范畴,状态/数词、 代词、介词、连词 等 9 - Stability. Words of the basic word stock have been in use for centuries.-稳定 性。基本词汇长期为人们 所使用。 10 Productivity . Words of the basic word stock are mostly root words or monosyllabic words.They can each be used alone, and at the same time can form new words with other roots and affixes.能产性。基本 词汇大多根词或单音节词。他们可以分别单独使 用,也可以和其他根源和词缀一起构成新词。 11 - Polysemy. Words belonging to the basic word stock often possess more than one meaning because most of them have undertone semantic changes in the course of use and become polysemous.多义词。基本 词中的词由于长期使用过程中产生了语义变化,単 义变成了多义。 12 - Collocability . Many words of the basic word stock quite a number of set expressions, idiomatic usages, proverbial sayings and the like. –搭 配性。基本词汇中的许多词形成了诸多固定的词 语,惯用用法,习语和谚语等。 Words, void of the stated characteristics, do not belong to the commom core of the language. they include the following.不具 备上述特点的词不属于改语言的共核,包括: 13 - Terminology consists of technical terms used in particular disciplines and academic areas 术语。是指 特定学科和叙述领域所使用的专有名词。 14 - Jargon refers to the specialized vocabularies by which members of particular arts, sciences, trades and professions communicate among themselves such as in business.-行话。是流行于艺术,科学,商业和其 他职业内部的专有名词。 15 - Slang belongs to the sub-standard language, a category that seems to stand between the standard general words including informal ones available to everyone and in-group words like cant, jargon, and argot, all of which are associated with, or most available to, specific groups of the population. -俚语 属非标准语言,介于一般标准词汇和团体内部用词 之间,如套语、 行话和黑语, 都在特定人群中流行。 Slang is created by changing or extending the meaning of existing words though some slang words are new coinages altogether. Slang is colorful, blunt, expressive and 2 impressive. 俚语大多还是由现有 词汇语义的改变或引申,只有少数是自创的,俚语 在表达上富有色彩,直接,表现力强,效果明显。 16 - Argot generally refers to the jargon of criminals








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