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2011届高考英语语法专题讲练测试题790


2011 届高考英语专题讲练测讲义集: (教师版)专题 8 语从句

一、 【专项直击】 【考情分析】 高考研究定语从句是英语三大类从句中最难的一类, 其难点主要在于很多学生在学习时分不 清先行词,不能正确使用关系代词、关系副词。因此在学习定语从句时,务必搞清定语从句 的概念、 关系词的正确选择和使用情况等。 预测今后高考定语从句的考查还将是对关系代词 和关系副词的考查。 【知识要点】 定语从句 (一)基本概念 1.由一个句子作定语,修饰句中一个名词或代词,有时也可以修饰整个句子或句中的部分内 容,这样的从句就是定语从句,被其修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。 2.关系词分为两大类,即关系代词和关系副词,其作用一是引出一个定语从句,二是代替其 所修饰的先行词,三是在句中充当某个句子成分。 关系词的分类和基本用法 表一 分类 关系代词 指代 人 事物 地点 关系副词 表二 关系代词 who whom whose that as that which whose 事物 人 指代 例句 The man who helped you is Mr White. That is the person(whom/who/that) you want to see. He is the father whose son studies very well in our class. I? m not the fool that you thought me to be. He is such a lazy man as nobody wants to work with. The only thing that we can do is to give you some advice. A dictionary is a useful book which tells us the meaning of words He lives in a room whose window faces south 解释 在定从中作主语 在定从中作宾语,可省略 在定从中作定语 在定从中作表语 在定从中作宾语 在定从中作宾语 在定从中作主语 在定从中作定语 时间 原因 引导词 who, whom, that, as which, that, as where when why

人或物 (表所属关系) whose

as 整句内容 表三 关系副词 when where why 指代 时间 地点 原因

It is such a big stone as nobody can lift. As is known to all, he is the best student. 例句 Would you suggest a time when we can have a talk? The house where they live is not very large. This is the reason why he did not came to the meeting.

在定从中作宾语 在定从中作主语

解释 在定从中作状语 在定从中作状语 在定从中作状语

(二)定语从句的注意点 本部分的内容比较复杂,为便于考生一目了然,我们试图用表格的形式呈现给考生。 1.that 与 which, who, whom 的用法区别 情 况 用法说明 ①先行词为 all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much,等不定代词时 ②先行词被 all, any, every, each, much, little, no, some, few 等修饰时 ③先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修 饰时 ④先行词既指人又指物时 ⑤先行词被 the only, the very 修饰时 ⑥句中已经有 who 或 which 时,为了 避免重复时 例 句 ① He told me everything that he knows. ②All the books that you offered has been given out. ③This is the best film that I have ever read. ④We talked about the persons and things that we remembered. ⑤He is the only man that I want to see. ⑥Who is the man that is making a speech? ① He has a son, who has gone abroad for further study. ② I like the person to whom the teacher is talking. ③ Those who respect others are usually respected by others.

只用 that 的情 况

只 用 which, who, whom 的 情况

①在非限制性定语从句中,只能用 which 指代物,用 who/whom 指人 ②在由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语 从句中,只能用 which 指物,whom 指 人。 ③先行词本身是 that 时,关系词用 which, 先行词为 those, one, he 时多用 who。

只用 that, in which 或不用 关系词的情 况

the way 做先行词时

① Mary,there is one way that you could stop others talking about you and criticizing yo u. ②I was struck by the beauty of the way in which she stood. ③What surprised me was not what he said but _______ he said it.

A. the way that C. in the way which 2.as、which 和 that 的区别 从句 限制性 定语从句中 区 别 例 句

B. in the way D. the way

He is not such a fool as he looks. 名词前有 such 和 the same 修饰时, Don’t read such books as you can’t 关系代词用 as,不能用 which understand. as 和 which 都可以指代前面整个主 句。如果有“正如,象”的含义, 并可以放在主句前,也可以放在后 面,那么用 as;而 which 引导的从 句只能放主句后,并无“正如”的 意思。 the same... as 指同类事物 the same ...that 指原物 They won the game, as we had expected. They won the game, which we hadn’t expected. As is well kno wn, he is a famous film star in the 1980s. That’s the same tool as I used last week.(同类工具,不是同一把) That’s the same tool that I used last week.那就是我上周用过的工具。 例 句

非限制性 定语从句中

the same... as 和 the same ...that

3. where、when 与 why 引导的定语从句 关系副词 用 法 关系副词 where 引导定语从句时, 只能在定语从句中作地点状语, 其 修饰的名词必须是表示(具体或抽 象的)地点的名词。 关系副词 when 引导定语从句时 , 只能在定语从句中作时间状语, 其 修饰的名词必须是表示时间的名 词。 关系副词 why 引导定语从句时, 只能在定语从句中作原因状语, 其 修饰的名词必须是表示原因的名 词。 We’re just trying to teach a point___both sides will sit down together and talk. A. where B. that C. when D. which There was ________time ________I hated to go to school. A. a; that B. a; when C. the; that D. the ; when Do you know the reason why she was put into prison ? 你知道她坐牢的原因吗?

where

when

why

4.“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 当关系代词作介词宾语,且该介词不是和从句的谓语动词构成固定短语时,介词可以提前, 这 样 就 出 现 “ 介 词 + 关 系 代 词 ” 。 先 行 词 指 物 , 用 “ 介 词 +which/whose”, 指 人 则 用 “ 介 词 +whom/whose”, 且两个关系代词均不能省略。介词的选择要遵循两个原则: 原则 内 容 例 句

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